Nowadays, the teacher faced challenge to rise good students achievement, they also have chance to leave traditional method through utilize technology and media. One of model used is model ASSURE created the material systematically combined the using of technology and media in the class effectively. According to International Society Technology and Education (ISTE 2000), the subject made by model ASSURE is harmony with standard of national education technology for teacher and the students directly and also curriculum standard from local to national level. In addition, model ASSURE uses standard approach based research design of subject that is harmony easily with template of curriculum in school.
There are some steps to create model ASSURE in learning process, they are: Analyze learners; State objective; Select methods, media, and materials; Utilize media and materials; Require learner participation; then Evaluate and revise.
Firstly, analyze learners. The first step in designing curriculum is identify and analyze characteristic of learners based on study achievement. This step incorporate all three major factors as follows: general characteristic, specific entry competence, and learning styles. The first factor includes age, gender, class, culture or socioeconomic factor. Analyze learners character such as attitude and anxiety can be gotten by using discussion and observation. The second factor includes proprietary knowledge and skill had or had not by the students yet such as prerequisite skill and target also attitude. This information can be gotten by giving question in class informally or sight the learning achievement formally. The third factor, learning styles, refers on psychological character spectrum that regards how the students feel and respond varied stimulus like multiple intelligence, preference and perseptual power, habitual processes information, and physiological factors. According to Gardner (1999), there are some aspects of intelligence as follows: visual spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, linguistic, logical mathematical, and natural.
Moreover, there are four categories of information thinking process. The first style is concret in order learners, they prefer direct experience and doing directly presented logically, for example practice in the laboratory, learn use computer, and demonstration. The second style is concret in random learners, they tend to do trial and error and make conclusion from their experience in exploration fast, for instance playing, simulation, selfstudy project, and inquiry. The third style is abstract in order, they have good ability to elaborate symbol and verbal logically, for example reading and learning by presentation. The fourth style is abstract in random, they are distinguished from their ability to find the meaning of presentasion by human, then they are good in discussion with their group, for instance learning by using audio visual (Butler 1986).
Furthermore, according to Keller (1987), motivation is defined everything would be done by everyone than something that could be done by them. There is ARCS model to know about students motivation including four acpects, such as Attention, Relevance, Confidece, and Satisfaction. Then, physiological factors consist of the different of gender, health, environment condition. As well as there needed priority as hungry, temperature, noise, light, and time (Moslow & Lowry 1998).
Secondly, state objective. The objective of studying is statement of what do will be reached by the students, it is not how subject taught. There are three critical importance things of standard and objective such as basic for choosing strategy, technology and media, basic for assesment, and basic for expectation of the students learning. In addition, The ABCDs of well-stated objective including mention the audience (the learner will…), then elaborate behavior that must be performed and condition which the behavior will be observed (using these following words: define, categorize, featuring, and avoid using these following words: know, appreciate, understand), finally, that process elaborate degree through whereabouts knowledge or new ability shall be gained that students ability can be assessed. Moreover, there are control classification of objective and objective and individual differences that are utmost important to adapt the objective and ability of the students. The objectives do not limit what do the students learn, but is meant to provide minimum and attainment level expected. Studying that is not intentional or incidental better expected happening and better encouraged since each student has varied characteristics, incidental studying has different forms for different students.
The third step to create the effective subject supported using technology and media is select methods, media, and materials systematically. There are guidances to select that, such as choosing a method; choosing a media format; obtaining specific materials; selecting available materials; modifying existing materials; and designing new materials.
More importantly, choosing method consists of students centered strategy and teacher centered strategy. Then, selecting available materials has some criteria: harmony with standard, result, and objectives; newest information and accurate; the suitable language; level of anxiety and involvement; technic quality; and easy to use. Then, there are three major concerns in modifying the existing materials as follows: (1) choose available materials including involving technological specialist and teacher, surveying source reference guidance and media, (2) change available materials, and (3) design new materials.
The fourth step to create the effective subject supported using technology and media is utilize media and materials. There are 5P proses in this step such as Preview the materials, Prepare the materials, Prepare the environment, Prepare the learners, and Provide the learning experience.
The fifth step to create the effective subject encouraged using technology and media is require learner participation. According to Engelhart, Furst, Hill, and Krathwohl (1956), more than 50 years ago, current global economics would necessitate students to have experience and practice to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate instead of only know and understand information. In a similar vein, constructive idea, that learning is an active mental process built bases relevant autentic experience where students will accept informative feedback, response that enable them to know in as much as they have reached aim and how to increase their performance. In addition, the participation of the students through practice using technology as tool of technology, comunication, research, problem solver and decision making.
The last step in creating the effective subject encouraged using technology and media is evaluate and revise. The main goal of this step is assessment of learner achievement, evaluation of methods and media, and evaluation of instructor revision.
More importantly in assessment of learner achievement is by autentic assessment could be used to assess performance or single product, unit product, or portfolio. Estimation scale that is most commonly used for autentic estimation including performance check list, attitude scale, product estimation check list (will be assessed from amazing to bad instead of yes or no), and rubric. Rubric is a group estimation criterion utilized to measure or assess product or student performance provided more comprehensive assessment consisting of three components which is performance criterion (e.g. present problems and supporting graph), estimation scale (usually used from level 3 to 6), and level of describe person performance that is very useful. Lastly, portofolio consists of traditional portfolio and e-portfolio used to assess students ability in making real product featured thier achievement in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Traditional portfolio is physical collection of the student product such as paper, photo, cassette recorder, and 3-D model, meanwhile e-portfolio is digital collection of the student product such as product made by computer like spreadsheet, microsoft word or webquest, and power point. The main component of portfolio is that students have to reflect by theirselves about theirselves in learning that is suitable with performace in their portfolio product. Finally, evaluation of instructor revision consists of four kinds of teacher basic evaluation such as theirselves, the students, teacher’s colleague, and administrator.
Smaldino, S. E. Lowther D. L. Russell J. D. Instructional Technology and Media for Learning. tenth edition. 2011.